Sunday, December 18, 2011

Who's Children?


A child is defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as 

"Every human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable under the child majority is attained earlier"

other related information :


 Article 19 of the convention specifically addresses child abuse and recommends a broad outline for its identification, reporting, investigation, treatment, follow-up and prevention


Role of the healthcare community in monitoring and reporting child abuse, as a channel of advocacy and direct technical support in other countries. 


"Child’s social, spiritual and moral wellbeing and physical and mental health to achieve of fullest possible physical development in all areas.” 

The role of planners

I was read an article by Mildred Warner regarding "Child care and Economic Development : The Role of Planners". It is a good article actually. This article opened my eyes on the scope of planner which is not only focus on development and economy but the truth is "PLANNING is EVERYTHING". It makes me proud of my field. Ok..let move on to the input of this article.

Firstly, the writers touch on the problem facing among working parents nowadays where they need a place or person to take care of their children. The problems is not only to FIND a place or a PERSON to take care of their children, BUT the financial problem caused this scenario become serious. In addition, an increasing in living cost give pressure among parent especially for low income family. 

Warner, Ribeiro and Smith 2003 stated that child care is now being recognized as part of the social infrastructure for economic development. The writer said that the challenge of child care extends beyond the concerns of working families. It affects land use planning, economic development strategies and both public and private finance.

Basically, there are three fundamental issues :
1. The structural challenges of an economy that fails to produce jobs that pay a family wage
2. The lack of workplace policies that support the dual role of parents workers.
3. The failure of planners and policymakers to build an adequate infrastructure for child care in America.

The Evolution of international standards on child rights


The League of Nations adopts the Geneva Declaration on the Rights ofthe Child. The declarationestablishes children’s rights to means for material,moral and spiritual development;special help when hungry, sick,disabled or orphaned; first call on relief when in distress; freedom from economic exploitation; and an upbringing that instils a sense of social responsibility.


The UN General Assembly passes the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which refers in article 25 to childhood as “entitled to special care and assistance.”


The UN General Assembly adopts the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which recognizes rights such as freedom from discrimination and the rights to a name and nationality. It also specifically enshrines children’s rights to education, health care and special protection.


The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights are adopted. The covenants advocate protection for children from exploitation and promote the right to education.


The International Labour Organizations adopts Convention No. 138 on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment, which sets 18 years as the minimum age for work that might be hazardous to an individual’s health, safety or morals.


The UN General Assembly adopts the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which provides protection for the human rights of girls as well as women. It also declares 1979 as International Year of the Child, which sets in motion the working group to draft a legally binding Convention on the Rights of the Child.


The UN General Assembly unanimously approves the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which enters into force the following year.


The 1990 World Summit for Children adopts the World Declaration on the Survival, Protection and Development of Children along with a plan of action for implementing it in the 1990s.


The International Labour Organization adopts Convention No. 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour.


The UN General Assembly adopts two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: one on the involvement of children in armed conflict, the other on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.


The UN General Assembly holds a Special Session on Children, meeting for the first time to specifically discuss children’s issues. Hundreds of children participate as members of official delegations, and world leaders commit themselves to a compact on child rights, ‘A World Fit for Children.’


The five-year follow-up to the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children ends with a Declaration on Children adopted by more than 140 governments. The Declaration acknowledges progress achieved and the challenges that remain, and reaffirms commitment to the World Fit for Children compact, the Convention and its Optional Protocols.